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10 Worst States for Taxes on Retirement Income

Category: Financial and taxes in retirement

September 21, 2015 — We thought this topic would be easy. Do some basic research, then come up with a list of the worst states for taxes on retirement. But after looking at the research we had to say – not so fast! There are so many considerations depending on your individual circumstances that any cut and dried, one size fits all approach is not going to be useful. All of these factors, for example, will have a major effect on your tax bill from one state to another: your income, the value of your home, the type of retirement income you get (and where it comes from), and whether you file singly or jointly. Yet we will try to come up with such a list, thinking of a prototypical couple that might, or might not, be similar to your situation. In this case we are focusing on worst states for retirement income taxes, and ignoring other taxes like those on property.

Back in 2011 we ran a similar exercise. In that one we had a hypothetical retirement couple (both over 65) who derives their income from a roughly equal combination of social security, (non-government) pension, and investment income. At that time we arbitrarily computed income taxes for 2 income levels: $60,000 and $100,000. We then applied all the standard, personal, and over 65 exemptions we could find. These income levels are obviously higher than what typical retirees earn; however our feeling was that below $60,000, income taxes are not that significant, and other considerations (mainly property tax) become much more important (see end of article for the 10 least friendly retirement tax states we listed back in 2011.

This year we are going to take a different tack. We will once again use a hypothetical couple, but this time with an arbitrary income level of $50,000 – an amount that about 40% of the respondents to our recent retirement income survey say they will exceed or be close to.

Not so simple
You would think that you could just look at the 10 states with the highest income taxes and say those were the ten least friendly states for retirement income taxes. But it is not that simple. Some of the considerations you need to take into account are:
What are the marginal rates that come into account, and at what levels. Some states like California have high marginal rates (e,g.; 13.3%), but those rates wouldn’t come into play for our couple’s $50,000 income. Eight states, such as Pennsylvania, have a flat tax (3.07%) – everybody pays the same rate.
Single taxpayer vs. filing jointly. Some states like NY double the exemption levels for couples, others like MN increase them, and some like South Carolina don’t change them at all. This can have a significant effect on our hypothetical couple.
Exemptions and credits. This is perhaps the trickiest area to consider. Some states have very high standard exemptions, for example Connecticut, which offers a $14,000 credit per individual. In states like that, unless you exceed a fairly high threshold, the income tax is close to irrelevant. There are also exemptions based on age and disabilities to consider. A few states like Oregon allow you to deduct federal taxes from your state income; most states do not. Yet another complication – New York has something called tax benefit recapture – theirs is a different kind of marginal income rate; when many high income taxpayers reach a new bracket they pay that higher rate on all their income.

Source of income. Tennessee and New Hampshire tax only dividends and interest. Some states exempt military or all government pensions, others exempt in-state government pensions, but not ones from outside the state. Most states exempt social security income. These states tax SS totally or in part: Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and Utah. If most of your income is from Social Security then these states might not be so attractive, and the states that don’t tax it on our list below might not be so bad.
Income taxes are only part of the picture. In this article we are focusing on income taxes. But as we have mentioned in many other articles, property taxes are often the biggest burden for retirees, along with estate taxes, and sales taxes can have some bearing.

The Tax Foundation has an excellent page explaining many of the above issues (note: the chart on that page is for filing singly, the example below is for a couple filing jointly).

10 states with the highest taxes on retirement income
Think of this not as a definitive list, but rather as a starting point if state income taxes are important to you. Your situation might be different enough that this list doesn’t apply to you. In our example we use a hypothetical couple with an income of $50,000. It does not take into account any other deductions or credits that might apply in your situation, such as a state, federal, social security, or military pension that might be exempted in all or in part in some of these states. The marginal rate shown is the one that applies if you go over the $ figure in the 3rd column. If your income is a lot higher than $50,000 the marginal rate might go even higher in many states, and the tax implications worse. The 4th column shows generally applicable exemptions and credits for each state. We have not attempted to rank these states, they are presented in alphabetical order.

Note that we are not accountants or tax professionals, we have merely reviewed what we believe are reliable resources to come up with information that you can use as a start for your research. Do not make an important tax decision without careful consideration and professional help. Our source for most of this information is

Oregon, which has a very high marginal income tax rate that kicks in a low level (but no sales tax!)


Marg. rate


$ Marg


SS Taxed
SS Taxed


Bottom line
Of the 10 states above, Hawaii, New York, and South Carolina are the tax friendliest to retirees whose income is mostly pensions and SS. The other 5 states which do not tax SS look better to folks who will have significant SS income. Minnesota and Montana, both of which tax Social Security, might be the least tax friendly states on this list. Georgia was originally on this list, but we removed it after we realized that its over age 62 and 65 exemptions are so high ($35,000 and $65,000 each) that our prototypical couple would probably pay no income tax in that state. This list would definitely change if your joint income is a lot higher than $50,000 – e.g.; California would definitely come into play.

The chart above does not provide complete detail on the tax situation for retirees in those states. For example, some provide partial exemptions on pensions of certain types, while others exempt all. Some exempt pensions but tax earned income. For more detail on all 50 states see our State Retirement Guides.

Income taxes are just one consideration when it comes to choosing a low-tax retirement state. In many cases property taxes might be a much more important thing to consider. For people whose income is mostly Social Security, most of the states listed above might not as high tax as it first seems. Before you let a list like this make you jump to some conclusions, it would be wise to model what your income taxes would be after you applied all exemptions and credits. And of course you should remember the words of a lawyer we admire, who cautions that you shouldn’t let the tax tail wag the dog (translation: do what makes you happy first).

Since taxes on income are only part of the retirement tax situation, we will develop a future article on the worst states for property and estate/inheritance taxes – the other key kinds of taxes that retirees face.

Worst states from our 2011 article
Please remember that the 2011 article used different criteria to develop this list, and state tax laws change all the time.

1. Minnesota
2. Montana
3. Missouri
4. Utah
5. Nebraska
6. West Virginia
7. Rhode Island
8. Vermont
9. Kansas
10. Colorado

For further reading:
For a different take on this see this MarketWatch article: “Most Tax Friendly States for Retirement
Most Tax Friendly States for Retirement
5 Thoughts on why taxes are the worst reason to pick a place to retire
Most important retirement financial tax issue is not what you think
The worst retirement states for taxes – not what you thought

What are your thoughts and experiences about the worst and best states for retirement taxes? Please share them in the Comments section below.

Posted by Admin on September 23rd, 2015


  1. I’m a little confused as to why Georgia is on the list. I thought that the first $65,000 ($130,000 for couples) is tax exempt in Georgia for persons over 65. For those over 62, the first $35,000, etc.
    Clarification please. Thank you!

    Editor’s note: Thanks Ella for reminding us of this important exclusion. You are absolutely correct, those exemptions are in place for people aged 62 and/or 65 on their retirement income (but not so much on earned income). We have removed GA from the list – that exemption makes it pretty darn friendly for taxation of retirement income. Our takeaway from this is that it reinforces the point we are trying to make – you have to carefully research your personal situation in each state before you leap to conclusions like we did! So we went back and looked at all of these states for retirement type exemptions and added that info as a column. That column makes HI, NY, and SC much more tax friendly to retirees – provided their income is mostly from pensions and SS.

    by ella — September 23, 2015

  2. South Carolina does tax pensions in excess of $15,000 ($30,000 for couples filing jointly). They also provide a $50,000 credit against the value of an owned and occupied home when calculating the annual tax bill after you turn 65 and live in the home for one (1) year. Property taxes for owner occupied homes in SC are very reasonable (home valued at $325,000 with the $50,000 reduction for being over 65 and one or more years as a resident will usually be under $1,000 per year). While the sales tax rates can be high in certain areas they do not charge a tax on groceries (other then prepared foods).

    by William D Snyder — September 23, 2015

  3. Could someone comment on Missouri? We are thinking Lake of the Ozarks but I see where Missouri taxes Social Security. This concerns me.

    by Shelley — September 24, 2015

  4. Let me add that our only source of income is Social Security and a small pension that makes only about 3600.00 per year.

    by Shelley — September 24, 2015

  5. From our research Tennessee seems to be pretty tax friendly fir retirees. Does anyone have any comments? We are looking at a development west of Chattanooga in Kimball, TN which looks very promising and very well funded.

    by Jan — September 24, 2015

  6. When you find a few places that appeal to you, it is time to look more closely at taxes.

    Admin is right…is is very confusing. In the case of Georgia, the source of income is not very important for the $65,000 dollar exclusion. (The source is important when it comes to some of the property tax exclusions which is not the subject of this article. Further property tax is driven by the location in the state.)

    A good source is Kiplingers Be sure to look at the state detail which gives you retirement detail.

    And of course tax taxes change more quickly than federal taxes…NC changed in the last few years. I remember posting about it in this blog.

    by elaine — September 24, 2015

  7. Tax friendly states.

    In the past week this is the second list of least friendly states not to include Connecticut. The other list was from The Street, they mentioned cities rather than states but no Connecticut city was listed. Usually Connecticut is on everyone’s list friendly. ????????????????????????

    by Markg — September 24, 2015

  8. I now live in Phoenix, Arizona. I find it extremely tax friendly. Below is excerpt from Kiplinger’s top 10 most tax-friendly states for retirees! Go to their website for further info on all states.

    TAX-FRIENDLY Arizona!!!!
    One of Kiplinger’s top ten most tax-friendly states for retirees, the Grand Canyon State is a major retirement destination, with plenty of sunshine and a low personal income tax.: Social Security benefits are exempt, as is up to $2,500 of some retirement income

    by Loralee — September 25, 2015

  9. i live in ct and can’t wait to get off this sinking ship. they tax anything that moves and bless as many gambling casino’s as they can to get additional revenue. doesn’t matter what these casino’s do to the population, just get revenue to spend. bad , bad and badder.

    by edmund greene — September 25, 2015

  10. Edmund Greene, I am with you. I too am a CT resident and when they introduced the Lottery that was going to help with taxes then the casino’s. What happened to that tax rebate of like $50 a person we were supposed to get? Your are right, the more money they get the more ways they find to squander it. Remember the phrase the Gov. said “NO NEW TAXES”. Hahaha!

    How is it the Southern States can have lower taxes and still function?

    by Louise — September 25, 2015

  11. Louise – Regarding your question as to how southern states have lower taxes and still function: for starters SC is woefully underfunded when it comes to roads (repair, expansion and finishing what they’ve started), education and social services. Our mothers were correct – you get what you pay for. Lower taxes = fewer services.

    by Alice — September 26, 2015

  12. Alice, don’t move to Mich. We get higher taxes and less services. Right now the GOPers in the legislature (the majority) are in closed meetings to put through a road repair bill (Dems are excluded). It includes a new gas tax, raising the registration fee on cars and cutting the education funding–again. BTW they will not fix the roads because if they do they cannot ask for more money in a couple of years. Been this way for at least 35 years.

    by Shumidog — September 26, 2015

  13. I live in NYS, about about 2 hours north of the city (not an affluent, a middle-middle class area). Our taxes are high, but the roads are well taken care of. Just had to add my 2 cents.

    by ella — September 26, 2015

  14. We are taxed up the ying yang in CT and we have some of the worst roads in the nation. Here is a report from a year ago and I am sure nothing has improved since then! In the winter you can count on pot holes everywhere and when spring and summer comes, some get filled in only to fall apart later on. One of the main roads in our town leading to the bridge that takes you to the other side of town is like a wash board and you feel like your teeth chatter till you get over the bridge! Our cars take a beating between the road conditions and the salt they spray on the roads in the winter. We spend a lot at the car wash to keep the salt off the cars and especially underneath. If not it will rust the car out.

    by Louise — September 26, 2015

  15. That’s what happens when a state consistently votes for Democrats!

    by Tony Conte — September 27, 2015

  16. yes but ct dept of highway changed every exit number on rte 395 and not only all new signs and labor to install, but new signs that read “formerly exit X” and labor to install them. and whenever the highway dept does anything it requires a minimum of 7 large orange trucks and 15 people. i feel so much better than the exits have been renumbered that i’m going to stay in ct and be robbed for the rest of my life

    by ed greene — September 27, 2015

  17. Dear Tom Conte how wrong you are. Examples:

    MI–Republican Ledgislature and Governor. Had a Dem Gov. before this one. Worst roads in the USA. (see prior post) Is probably bankrupt, Snider is funding everything with debt. The s**t will hit the fan when the next Gov takes over, probably a dem since that election will coincide with a Presidential election. (Dems don’t vote in off year elections)
    KS–Republican consistantly–Bankrupt, can’t even fund their schools.
    RI–Democrat consistantly–Bankrupt
    I’m sure there are more and even worse examples.

    The problem isn’t the party it’s the ‘establishment’ who are funded (bought) by special interests and elected by voters who believe their lies. John Cleese did a YouTube video on this type of voter which is fun but also true.

    by Shumidog — September 27, 2015

  18. Folks

    Lets not get involved in a Republicans vs Democrats etc discussion here. So far this has been civil and interesting, but lets try to keep our political outlook out of it. Thanks – Admin

    by Admin — September 27, 2015

  19. Jan, TN seems reasonable except for the high Sales Tax on purchases. However, I am looking at the towns in the far northeastern area of TN which are closer to the Virginia border, and here’s why. I have heard that living in TN for the affordable real estate taxes is wonderful, and then people travel a few miles north into Virginia to do shopping, and it’s THE way to go. TN has something like a 9.4% Sales Tax whereas VA has a 5.4% Sales Tax. Don’t quote me on the exact percentages, please check for yourself, but these are approximates and you can see how shopping for anything in VA would be an immediate savings, and for long-term, it could really add up to a lot of savings. Good luck !!

    by Patte — September 27, 2015

  20. Taxes are a reason to watch where you are moving when faced with a fixed income. Taxes pay for things we need too. I think medical and weather should be at the first of our list when choosing a retirement place, then cost of living.

    by DeyErmand — September 27, 2015

  21. I wanted to share this with all of you from CNBC about Best and Worst places, weather and taxes, etc. for retirement analyzed several lists of the best places to retire compiled by Bankrate, WalletHub and AARP to find the best retirement cities for specific interests, whether it’s great outdoor activities or excellent health care or walkable urban living.

    Read MoreBest and worst cities to retire

    by Loralee — September 28, 2015

  22. Loralee, thanks for the link. I was surprised to see Phoenix as the top city for retirement. I live in Tucson and would not retire to Phoenix for the following reasons (some of you will disagree with me): 1) You must own a car. It’s not a walking city and the public transit is not great. 2) The weather during the summer is hot and humid, because of all the agriculture around there. Plus the smog is pretty bad. 3) It’s expensive to buy a place there, if that’s what you want. 4) As a rule, it is not a charming place to live. Yes there are some charming places, but the traffic is so bad that getting to them from across town takes a while. Did I say traffic is BAD? 5) It is a relatively new city so that it reminds me of a mini-Los Angeles in appearance. I lived in LA in the late 60s, early 70s, and visited my sister often, and I didn’t like it then and don’t now. So, I disagree with CNBC.

    by Elaine C. — September 28, 2015

  23. Sorry Elaine, I totally disagree with you. I actually moved to N. Phoenix (15 minutes N. of Scottsdale) from LA. What a hugh difference for me. It could take me 2 or 3 hrs to get anywhere in LA, here it is a breeze!!!! Yes we have some traffic during rush hour, as any large city does, but this city is well planned and there are many alternative routes. I am retired so that does not affect me. Where I live we really don’t have the smog issue, that is mostly downtown when it occurs. If you want real smog…live in LA. Yes the summers are hot, but not really humid except when we get a monsoon, which does not last that long. I can escape the heat to Prescott, or go to San Diego for vacations which are all close drives. It is getting more expensive to buy a home here, but still possible. I love it and the people here are very accomodating and nice, as compared to Los Angeles. For instance, when I call the city here if I notice a pothole, low and below, they actually listen and come fix it. That never happend in LA. So in closing I found a great place for me. We all have different experiences, and my 4 years plus here have been a pleasure. Just saying….

    by Loralee — September 29, 2015

  24. Loralee, Thanks for the info…My husband and I are from the Midwest and have spent ALOT of time in Florida.
    I’m trying to get him to explore other areas for our final retirement place. We are going to Palm Springs in Feb(to visit
    family) and spend time in San Diego. Arizona of course is a much better retirement state due to taxes and such.
    I’m hoping he’ll enjoy the desert enough to go back and visit Phoenix!!!

    by lindaf — September 29, 2015

  25. Lindaf, my married daughter lives in Palm Springs, Calif…actually La Quinta. I love it and go there often to visit her and my other friends that live in Palm Desert. I hope you and your husband enjoy it, the weather will be picture perfect!! Make sure you visit El Paseo, their Beverly Hills Rodeo Drive located in Palm Desert. Lots of things to see and enjoy.

    by Loralee — September 29, 2015

  26. Funny, we too will be in La sister bought a second home there just last year. Of course they love it too. I believe my sister mention El Paseo..thanks,we’ll make it a point to check it out.

    by lindaf — September 30, 2015

  27. Loralee, I guess it’s all relative. Living in Tucson is not like living in LA, so for me, Phoenix is one degree closer to the LA environment, whereas Tucson is another degree or two away from it. I’ve lived here for 23 years, and it’s a wonderful place to be. When I relocate, I’m keeping my 5-acre place (I have a renter lined up) in case I decide after a few years to move back. That’s a possibility, but I must go for the next adventure phase in my life to find out if that’s where I should be.

    by Elaine C. — September 30, 2015

  28. Patte, you are spot on regarding living in TN and shopping in VA. I live in Bristol, TN and do exactly that. Given that TN is in the top 5 for not taking money out of your pocket (low property tax and no income tax… the onerous exception is sales tax). Living on the border mitigates that. The only way it would be better is if VA had no sales tax (like OR or MT).

    by art bonds — October 1, 2015

  29. Loralee, I used to live at McDowell Mtn Ranch (N. Scottsdale) and Anthem. I enjoyed both areas and North Phoenix in general, but wife and I rarely ventured south of Thunderbird/Cactus. We had everything we needed north of those two roads, great restaurants (like Islands, Streets of New York, etc), shopping (Arrowhead, Desert Ridge). Not to mention there are safety concerns going south of those roads. But we sometimes ventured south to take in a concert or two at America West Arena (now Talking Stick). Yep, we lived there when the Diamondback had REAL southwestern colors and were World Series champions (smiles).
    While the weather does get hot it is not humid. I could take 110 degrees in N Phx much easier than the 90 when we lived in Vero Beach, FL. Also being up in N Scottsdale and Anthem it cooled down much faster in the evening than being in the heat island that is metro Phx.
    If we ever got dissatisfied with far Northeast TN we would move back to AZ in a heartbeat.

    by art bonds — October 1, 2015

  30. I want to thank everyone (Loralee, Art, etc) who have talked to me and about Northern Phoenix. I will be going on the 14th to see my son and will be contacting a Realtor looking for a 2-bedroom apt. I have a 2400 sq ft house here in Houston and for me I am tired of all the work around the house and I am just talking about what my husband did before he passed. And if you want to talk about humidity I will tell you stories here from Houston. I am looking forward to this adventure but I must say downsizing this house is a REAL job.
    Thanks again, Sharon A

    by SharonA — October 3, 2015

  31. Here is some bad news about CT from the WSJ, which points out CT is one of the worst states in terms of its funding for future pension liabilities.

    According to the National Association of State Retirement Administrators, Connecticut only has 51.9% of the assets it needs to pay future obligations to workers, lower than all states except for Illinois and Kentucky.

    by Admin — October 5, 2015

  32. this just follows all the other messes the state has been able to generate. in the 1990’s state had balanced budget and no income from lottery, casinos or income tax. none of these existed. since then all three have been put into effect plus many more taxes and ct operates in the red with substantial unfunded liabilites. what a disaster.

    by edmund greene — October 6, 2015

  33. I live in CT also, and we have watched this train hurtling down the track for years, the result of inept leadership in the state house and governor’s mansion. Lulled into a false sense of security by all the top corporate HQs in the state and the nation-leading average income rates, despite the deplorable condition of a few of our cities, politicians thought a robust economy would continue to pay the pension obligations referenced above. But GE is now threatening to leave the state and my own former corporation, UTC, has downsized its HQ to nearly nothing and moved it from Hartford to the suburbs. (Its manufacturing operations in the state have also lost thousands of jobs, and they even sold the iconic Sikorsky to Lockheed Martin.) Most pointedly, the Hartford Courant has been running stories about the outward migration from the state to areas like the Southeast. Who can argue? Myrtle Beach, SC, for example, is about 62% less expensive than is Stamford, CT. And the golf is a lot more plentiful.

    by Larry — October 6, 2015

  34. I reside in CT too. Let us not forget Lowell Weicker and his infamous CT income tax that was going to solve all the financial problems in CT. That was 1991, 24 years ago. Shouldn’t CT be paving their streets in gold by now with income tax money, casino money and lottery money? No, we have streets with potholes that swallow cars.

    Everything in my area is going out of business. Over the last few years we have had 5 car dealerships, a bed and breakfast, several restaurants, some manufacturing and R&D companies go out. Lots of for sale signs everywhere. I do not see the economic recovery at all. I think that is a myth they are trying to make us believe. Not to mention the unemployment figures. Those of us who lost our jobs and are no longer ‘looking’ as they suggest, are not counted. If they did count the numbers would be incredibly scary.

    by Louise — October 6, 2015

  35. More bad news for Connecticut home sellers. A report came out today that sales are up but prices are down. There are so many houses for sale in my area. More than last year at this time.

    by BernieD — October 6, 2015

  36. I relocated out of CT over 35 years ago. I really would have liked to return. Family members are buried there, and I have many treasured memories. It will always be “home.” However, CT is not even close to being a good place to retire in view of the state’s excessive taxes, oil heating prices, etc. When I look at my childhood home in CT on the real estate sites, I’m amazed at the ridiculous value per sq. foot, compared to housing prices in the South East. A secure middle-class retirement income in FL or the Carolinas puts me at poverty level in CT.

    by Sharon — October 7, 2015

  37. Another point I am finding important to consider, medicare benefits. From what I can find, each state has different rules on Medicare benefits. If anyone has more information on this, I would appreciate it as we all would.

    Another point: a friend is caring for a mentally challenged son in his 50’s’60’s. He uses ARC care in NY for his son when she has to travel and he likes the facility. From what I am learning, in some states ARC care varies; ex. she says that Florida ARC funding is much lower and their quality of life is poorer.

    by millie fitzpatrick — October 8, 2015

  38. This question came in from Dave C:

    Q: In your articles you use the word “pension ” but you don’t mention how 401K and IRA’s are taxed. What is the definition of “pension ”

    A: We would define pension as a regular payment made to a person in consideration of their past service or employment – such as the payments made to career armed forces personnel with enough service to qualify. 401(k)s and IRAs are a more modern invention and are basically tax sheltered retirement accounts, most of which is contributed by the employee.

    Every state handles the taxation of pensions, 401(k)s and IRAs differently (the latter 2 are generally handled the same way). You need to understand how your state taxes them, what exemptions might apply, etc. Our State Guides/ try to give some insight on this, although you really should check with the State if you are concerned.

    by Admin — August 21, 2016

  39. Check out the website Under “retirement” if you list your various sources of income and your zip code or town of interest, it can give you an “estimate” of what your state income taxes will be. It also can provide info on real estate taxes.

    by Florence — August 22, 2016

  40. Thanks John for the quick reply. This makes sense. Perhaps, since there are more 401K and IRA’s these days, we should include a paragraph in each state guide addressing how they are treated. IE: 401K and IRA’s are like regular income and thus taxed with the same rules as if you worked while receiving Social Security. I don’t know. . Just a suggestion.
    Thanks again!

    Editor’s comment. You are welcome. Good suggestion: will work to include more about taxation of 401(k)s and IRA’s in the State Guides (some have it already, some do not, some states like to make this information hard to find!)

    by Dave C — August 22, 2016

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